[high school math] Isn't frequency the B value but why is there a formula for it?

The value of b determines both the period and frequency, but neither are equal to b.  In a standard, non-transformed sine or cosine function, the period is 2pi (or 360 if you're working in degrees), because in that case b=1.  If b has a different value for a specific function, that will affect the value of both the period and frequency.
It’s an ambiguity in the word “frequency”. Sometimes w = 2 pi f is called the angular frequency. Either way, f = w/2pi is the number of cycles per second.

When they call w the “frequency”, they’re still not going to claim it’s the number of cycles per second.

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