If by "basics" you mean high school level (say at the level of an AP exam), then you don't need much for Biology/Chemistry. If you've taken Algebra I/II that should be more than enough. For Physics, you absolutely need calculus to understand the basics. Calc I (derivatives) is necessary to understand Mechanics, and for introductory electricity and magnetism you'd need Calc II (integrals).

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Edit: It's worth noting that there are "algebra-based" physics classes, but in my experience they try (and usually fail) to just teach "pseudo-calculus" while teaching actual physics, and students come out understanding neither physics nor calculus. I'd really just recommend learning calculus first and going from there.