I'd actually recommend playing the video games in the professor Layton series. They are full of puzzles and riddles of all kinds (including mathematical), but they also have really good stories to go along with them. They were originally for Nintendo DS like over a decade ago (and will work on 3ds), but I think you can get a lot of them on phones and tablets now.
I played them in order (starting with the curious villiage), but the 3rd one (the lost future, or the unwound future depending on region) has by far the best story. Absolute 10/10. I wouldn't recommend the latest one (the millionaires conspiracy) - it's a spin off of small disconnected stories and I haven't bothered to finish it yet.