I know of some trans researchers in mathematics and theoretical computer science. I don't know any of them personally.
Interestingly enough, the only trans person I personally know (or, better stated, the only one of my acquaintances and friends that I know is trans) is a sister of one of my colleagues. Most of the research group met her before the transition, and had absolutely no issues with her after the transition (as one would expect from sensible people).
My advice would be to pursue the academic career if that's what you're passionate about.
Unfortunately, yes, our society puts a lot of extra pressure on women in academia (and I assume if you're trans it can only be worse), but my experience tells me that academia is more open and more welcoming than most environments.