ChatGPT does NOT retrieve any data at all from the internet. It merely remembers statistical patterns of words coming one after another in the typical texts. It has no knowledge of facts, and no means to get them whatsoever. It was also trained with data up to 2021, so there is no training data after that whatsoever. There was an older attempt with WebGPT, but it did not get anywhere AFAIK.
What you need is a semantic search model, which summarizes semantic information from texts as vectors and then performs vector search based on your query. You can use transformer-based model for text vectorization, of course, which may work reasonably well. For specific searches, however, I am pretty sure that in your use case regexes will be just fine.
If you are sure that you need semantic search, use domain-specific model like SciBERT for best results, or fine-tune some pretrained model from Huggingface.