Everyone has great points and resources, in particular with Physics needing more of a basic understanding on Algebra and being able to manipulate variables/equations is important to do. In particular, dimensional analysis (manipulating equations to see if two things are equivalent) is an important skill to know for both Physics and Math.
I also wanted to say that I also came from a place where I didn’t have a good relationship with math and ended up hating it because I would always get less than desirable grades or end up just barely passing. I only started to enjoy it when I was in my junior year (3rd year of high school) because of the teachers there and it really changed the way I saw math and made it a lot more interesting for me to learn and overcome. I still struggle with math, but I’ve progressed a long way from when I was still in HS and find that getting the right teacher and environment for me to learn math properly helped a lot. Professors are also there to help you when you get stuck when you get to college/university, so don’t be afraid to ask for clarification or help!
Sometimes it can take longer for other people to “get” a concept completely before moving on, so it’s really at your own pace and it’s good that you want to improve upon your skills regarding that.
I’m not too sure what country you’re from, but in the US, the math “ladder” for CS majors in my program are from Calculus I, Calculus II, Calculus III (or otherwise known as Multivariable Calculus), Discrete Math and Linear Algebra. It may vary for different programs, but that’s the progression that you should expect from a CS degree.
They’re all different from K-12 education imo, Calculus can feel intimidating because of the concepts regarding it, but with enough practice with derivatives (what you learn in Calculus I), you’ll come to find that it becomes easier to do. Limits are what comes before learning about derivatives though and that as a concept should be understood in how they relate to asymptotes. This is usually also introduced in Pre-Calculus, if your college/university offers that and generally, to take Calculus, Pre-Calculus and Trigonometry are classes that can help you with Calculus.
Calculus II introduces integrals, which is like the inverse of a derivative (just like how logarithms are inverses of exponents) and you also learn about sequences/series, but that’s something that often deviates into one of the topics in Discrete Math.
Calculus III should be easier when you’re finished with Calculus I and II because it’s like review, but you also get more in-depth with how it relates to “the real world” and it’s actually in Calculus II and III where you start getting introduced to concepts that become really handy for Physics like the disk and washer method and Vector Calculus in Calculus III. The further you go, the more similarities you’ll start seeing in Math and Physics, but it’s also in Discrete Math that you see the integration that CS has in the subject. But Discrete Math is really also a “grab bag” of different math subjects, but that’s another topic for another time.
I actually haven’t started Linear Algebra, but you start seeing things like the dot and cross products that you should’ve learned in Calculus III, so it all ends up lining up with each other at the end of it too.
Good luck on your journey and I hope this gives you some insight on the math typically found in a CS degree, along with how you aren’t alone in feeling the way you do with math!